"The human body stores several years' worth of vitamin B12, so nutritional deficiency of this vitamin is extremely rare. Elderly are the most at risk. However, deficiency can result from being unable to use vitamin B12. Inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract can be caused by a disease known as pernicious anemia.
Additionally, strict vegetarians or vegans who are not taking in proper amounts of B12 are also prone to a deficiency state." - Mayo Clinic
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Overview - Psychiatric Symptoms - Alzheimer's Disease
Anemia - Complex Cankers - Manufacturer's Description
||Suggested Usage: As a dietary supplement, take one lozenge daily. Chew lozenge or hold in mouth until dissolved.
||Amount Per Serving
||Vitamin B-12 (as Cyanocobalamin)
||Other Ingredients: Fructose, Cellulose, Sorbitol, Stearic Acid (vegetable source), Natural Cherry Flavor, Magnesium Stearate (vegetable source) and Silica.
Unless otherwise noted, the following are excerpts from the Mayo Clinic
Neurologic and Psychiatric Symptoms
Vitamin B12 is an essential water-soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of foods such as fish, shellfish, meat, and dairy products. Vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in a vitamin B complex formulation. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells and is also needed to make DNA, the genetic material in all cells.
Studies have shown that a deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to abnormal neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms may include: ataxia (shaky movements and unsteady gait), muscle weakness, spasticity, incontinence, hypotension (low blood pressure), vision problems, dementia, psychoses, and mood disturbances. Researchers report that these symptoms may occur when vitamin B12 levels are just slightly lower than normal and are considerably above the levels normally associated with anemia ...
Some patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have been found to have abnormally low vitamin B12 levels in their blood. However, vitamin B12 deficiency itself often causes disorientation and confusion and thus mimics some of the prominent symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Well-designed clinical trials are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a cause of megaloblastic anemia ... If the cause is B12 deficiency, then treatment with B12 is the standard approach. Patients with anemia should be evaluated by a physician in order to diagnose and address the underlying cause.
... Pernicious anemia treatment is usually lifelong; supplemental vitamin B12 given intramuscularly, intranasally, or by mouth.
Pregnancy and Children
Some cases of complex canker sores are caused by an underlying health condition, such as an impaired immune system; nutritional problems, such as vitamin B-12, zinc, folic acid, or iron deficiency; and gastrointestinal tract disease, such as Celiac disease and Crohn's disease. - WebMD®
... Vitamin B12 deficiency in infants is rare but can occur as a result of maternal insufficiency ... Mothers who follow a strict vegetarian diet should consult with a pediatrician regarding appropriate use of vitamin B12 supplements for their infants and children. They should also discuss with their personal physician their own need for vitamin B12 supplements.
Caution should be used in patients undergoing angioplasty ... [Side effects can include] itching, rash, transitory exanthema, ... urticaria ... rosacea fulminans ... diarrhea ... peripheral vascular thrombosis ... Treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency can unmask polycythemia vera, which is characterized by an increase in blood volume and the number of red blood cells.
... Vitamin B12 is contraindicated in early Leber's disease, which is hereditary optic nerve atrophy. Vitamin B12 can cause severe and swift optic atrophy.
Vitamin B-12 (cyanocobalamin) is a water soluble vitamin necessary for the maintenance of a healthy nervous system and for the metabolic utilization of fats and proteins. Vitamin B-12 is also essential for the synthesis of DNA during cell division and therefore is especially important for rapidly multiplying cells such a blood cells. In addition, adequate intake of Vitamin B-12, along with Folic Acid and Vitamin B-6, encourages healthy serum homocysteine levels, thereby supporting cardiovascular health. Because Vitamin B-12 is found predominantly in animal products, strict vegetarians are at risk of developing Vitamin B-12 deficiency and may benefit from supplementation.